Yoga is as yoga does

The American yoga community faces urgent questions about authenticity and ownership, philosophy and propriety

Shavasana never looked so complicated — especially in the US. About 14.3 million Americans practise yoga today, and about $6 billion was spent on yoga products in 2008, according to the American Yoga Journal — but recently, the practise has been embroiled in much controversy. Accusations of financial misdeeds, sexual misconduct and ownership issues of asanas have roiled the community. India, as yoga's civilisational home, will eventually have to grapple with these concerns about its philosophy, patents, and even its guru-shishya parampara model.

The first whiff of scandal erupted earlier this year, when John Friend, founder of Anusara Yoga, a hatha yoga-based practice which counts as its central tenet "a feel good" factor, was accused of widespread womanising and inappropriate behaviour. Friend, the subject of a hagiographic profile in The New York Times as recently as 2010, was forced to resign and has skulked off to "introspect". Such transgressions are not new — even in the '60s and '70s, when the Beatles and others made yoga popular in the US, Maharishi Mahesh Yogi had been accused of impropriety (never proven) by Mia Farrow. Swami Satchidananda, founder of Integral Yoga, had been accused of sexual abuse and of preaching poverty while luxuriating in a Rolls Royce.

But far more significant is the battle over Ashtanga yoga, a rigorous practice that originated in Mysore that is highly popular in the US. Ashtanga was made famous by K. Pattabhi Jois, who died in 2009. Jois, a student of the great yogi T. Krishnamacharya (who also taught B. K. S. Iyengar), perfected a sequence of asanas, eventually collated into six series, each more arduous than the next. Fans include Madonna, Sting, and hordes of type-A personalities attracted to its structure and difficulty. In a recent Vanity Fair article, a proponent of Ashtanga describes it as the "Yoga of no", in contrast to Anusara, known as the "Yoga of yes". Jois' grandson Sharath succeeded him at the Shri K. Pattabhi Jois Ashtanga Yoga Institute in Mysore. Having mastered the sixth series, Sharath is said to be the foremost practitioner of Ashtanga. He and his mother have partnered with 44-year-old Sonia Tudor Jones, wife of billionaire hedge fund investor, Paul Tudor Jones II, to create "Jois Yoga", which wants to bring yoga to the underprivileged across the world, apart from creating beautiful yoga shalas. Oh, and there's a line of clothing too.

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